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Arctic Cyber Anthropology, by Neil Blair Christensen, one of the first anthropologists to study the Internet

Cyber-Anthropology Project (CAP), an initiative of Dutch students and scholars of the Department of Cultural Anthropology of the Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam

DevMedia, Media for Development and Democracy

El Rincón del Antropólogo/Vínculos de Antropologia e Internet, un punto de encuentro y debate para todos los antropólogos de Latinoamérica, España y Portugal

Ethnography and the Internet: Writing into the new Millenium, The University of Hull, 13-14 December 1999

Institut für Ethnologie, Universität Bern

Internet Society (ISOC), the international organization for global coordination and cooperation on the Internet

Internet for the Third World - Chance or threat?, by Uwe Afemann, Computer Center of the University of Osnabrück, Germany

J@rgon : Virtuaalinen antropologia Virtuaalisen antropologian tutkimuskohteena ovat arkipäivän konkreettisen ulkopuolella elävät online-yhteisöt ja elektronisissa ympäristöissä elävät merkitys- ja vuorovaikutusjärjestelmät.

l'Institut d'ethnologie de l'Université de Neuchâtel, extensive links to on-line anthropological resources


Recommended reading on Internet, globalization, culture and much more

Anderson, Benedict. 1983. Imagined Communities. Reflections on the Origin and Development of Nationalism. London: Verso.

______ 1998. The Spectre of Comparisons: Nationalism, Southeast Asia and the World. London: Verso.

Appadurai, Arjun, 1990. Disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy. In M. Featherstone, ed. Global Culture. Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity. London: SAGE Publications.

_______ 1991. Global ethnoscapes: Notes and queries for a transnational anthropology. In R.G. Fox, ed. Recapturing Anthropology. Working in the Present. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press.

______1996. Modernity at Large. Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Aronowitz, Stanley, et. al., (eds.). 1996. Technoscience and Cyberculture. New York: Routledge.

Barth, Fredrik. 1990. The Guru and the Conjurer: Transactions in Knowledge and the Shaping of Culture in Southeast Asia and Melanesia. MAN, Vol. 25, No. 4.

_______1992. Towards greater naturalism in conceptualizing societies. In Conceptualizing Society, A. Kuper (ed). London: Routledge.

_______ 1993. Balinese Worlds. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Basalla, George. The Evolution of Technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Beck, Ulrich. 1994. The Reinvention of Politics: Towards a Theory of Reflexive Modernization. In Reflexive Modernization. Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order, U. Beck, A. Giddens and S. Lash (eds.). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Benedikt, Michael (ed.). 1992. Cyberspace: First Steps. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Bijker, Wiebe E., Thomas P. Hughes and Trevor J. Pinch (eds.). 1993. The Social Construction of Technological Systems. New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1977. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bender, Gretchen and Timothy Druckrey (eds.).1994. Culture on the Brink. Ideologies of Technology. Dia Center for the Arts, Discussions in Contemporary Culture, No. 9. Seattle: Bay Press.

Brockman, John. 1996. Digerati. Encounters with the Cyber Elite. San Francisco: HardWired.

Burnett, Ron. 1996. A Torn Page, Ghosts on the Computer Screen, Words, Images, Labyrinths: Exploring the Frontiers of Cyberspace. In Connected. Engagements with Media, G. Marcus, (ed.). Late Editions Vol. 3. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Callon, Michel. 1986. The Sociology of an Actor-Network: The Case of the Electric Vehicle. In Mapping the Dynamics of Science and Technology. Sociology of Science in the Real World, M. Callon, J. Law and A. Rip (eds.). London: Macmillan Press Ltd.

Castells, Manuel,  The Information Age. Economy, Society and Culture, Vol. I: The Rise of the Network Society, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.

________ The Information Age. Economy, Society and Culture, Vol. II: The Power of Identity, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1997.

________ The Information Age. Economy, Society and Culture, Vol. III: End of Millennium, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998.

Coupland, Douglas. 1995. Microserfs. New York: Regan Books.

Crary, Jonathan and Sanford Kwinter (eds.). 1992. Incorporations. New York: Zone.

Curtis, Pavel. 1996. Mudding: Social Phenomena in Text-Based Virtual Realities. In Internet Dreams. Archetypes, Myths, and Metaphors, M. Stefik (ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Dibbell, Julian. 1996. A Rape in Cyberspace: How an Evil Clown, a Haitian Trikster Spirit, Two Wizards, and a Cast of Dozens Turned a Database into a Society. In High Noon on the Electronic Frontier. Conceptual Issues in Cyberspace, P. Ludlow (ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

d’Orville, Hans.  1996. UNDP and the Communications Revolution: Technology Revolution Study - Communications and Knowledge-Based Technologies for Sustainable Human Development.
New York: UNDP. On-line @ http://www.undp.org/undp/comm/index.html.

Escobar, Arturo. 1994. Welcome to Cyberia. Notes on the Anthropology of Cyberculture. Current Anthropology, Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 211-231.

______ 1995. Encountering Development. The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Featherstone, Mike and Roger Burrows (eds.). 1995. Cyberspace, Cyberbodies, Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment. London: SAGE.

Featherstone, Mike (ed.). 1990. Global Culture. Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity. London: SAGE Publications.

_________ Scott Lash and Roland Robertson. Global Modernities. London: SAGE Publications, 1995.

Ferguson, James. 1999. Expectations of Modernity. Myths and Meanings of Urban Life on the Zambian Copperbelt. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Fortier, François. 1996. Civil Society Computer Networks. The Perilous Road of Cyber-Politics. Toronto: York University, Ph.D. Dissertation. On-line @ http:www.yorku.ca/research/dkproj/fortier.

Foucault, Michel. 1977. Discipline and Punish. The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage Books.

_______ 1976. The Will to Knowledge. The History of Sexuality: Volume One. London: Penguin Books.

Fox, Richard (ed.). 1991. Recapturing Anthropology. Working in the Present. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press.

Garsten, Christina. 1994.  Apple World: Core and Periphery in a Transnational Organisational Culture, Stockholm: Stockholm Studies in Social Anthropology, 33.

_______ and Helena Wulff (eds). People Of The Screen: Ethnographic Studies Of Electronic Work Practice. Oxford: Berg (forthcoming).

Geertz, Clifford.  1973. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books inc.

Gibson, William. 1984. Neuromancer. New York: Ace Books.

Giddens, Anthony. 1990. The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.

_______ 1994. Living in a Post-Traditional Society. In Reflexive Modernization. Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order, U. Beck, A. Giddens and S. Lash (eds.). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Graham, Gordon. 1999. The Internet. A Philosophical Inquiry. London: Routledge.

Grossman, Wendy. 1997. net.wars. New York: New York University press.

Gusterson, Hugh. 1997. Studying Up Revisited. PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review, 20(1): 114-119.

Hamelink, Cees. 1997. New Information and Communication Technologies, Social development and Cultural Change. Geneva: UNRISD, Discussion Paper 86.

Hafner, Katie and Matthew Lyon. 1996. Where Wizards Stay Up Late. The Origins of the Internet. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Hakken, David. 1999. CYBORGS@CYBERSPACE. An Ethnographer Looks to the Future. London: Routledge.

Hannerz, Ulf. 1980. Exploring the City. Inquiries Toward an Urban Anthropology. New York: Columbia University Press.

______ 1989. Culture Between Center and Periphery: Toward a Macroanthropology. Ethnos, Volume 54: III-IV.

______ 1990. Cosmopolitans and Locals in World Culture. In Global Culture. Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity, M. Featherstone (ed.). London: SAGE Publications.

______ 1992a. Cultural Complexity. Studies in the Social Organization of Meaning. New York: Columbia University Press.

______ 1992b. The global ecumene as a network of networks. In Conceptualizing Society, A. Kuper (ed). London: Routledge.

______ 1996. Transnational Connections. Culture, People, Places. London: Routledge.

______ 1998. Transnational Research. In Handbook of Methods in Anthropology, H. Russell Bernard (ed.). Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press.

______ Center-periphery relationships. In International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, U. Hannerz (ed.), forthcoming.

Hart, Keith. 2000. The Memory Bank. Money in an Unequal World. London: Profile Books.

Heap, Nick, Ray Thomas, Geoff Einon, Robin Mason and Hughie Mackay (eds.). 1995. Information Technology and Society. London: Sage Publications in association with the Open University.

Human Rights Watch. 1996. Silencing the Net: The Threat to Freedom of Expression On-line. Human Rights Watch, Vol 8, No. 2.

Jones, Steve (ed.). 1997. Virtual Culture. Identity and Communication in Cybersociety. London: SAGE Publications.

_______ (ed.). 1999. Doing Internet Research. Critical Issues and Methods for Examining the Net. London: SAGE Publications.

Jordan, Tim. 1999. Cyberpower. The Culture and Politics of Cyberspace and the Internet. London: Routledge.

Kirschenblatt-Gimblett, Barbara. 1996. The Electronic Vernacular, in Connected. Engagements with Media, G. Marcus (ed.). Late Editions Vol. 3. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Kroker, Arthur. 1996. Virtual Capitalism, in Techno Science and Cyber Culture, S. Aronowitz, B. Martinson and M. Menser (eds.). London: Routledge.

Latour, Bruno. 1993. We Have Never Been Modern. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Leiner, Barry et. al. 1997. A Brief History of the Internet. Paper published on the Internet Society Web site at http://www.isoc.org.

Levinson, Paul. 1999. Digital McLuhan. A Guide to the Information Millennium. London: Routledge.

Lévy, Pierre. 1997. Collective Intelligence. Mankind’s Emerging World in Cyberspace. New York: Plenum Press.

Levy, Steven. 1994. Hackers. Heroes of the Computer Revolution. London: Penguin Books.

Lotfalian, Mazyar. 1996. A Tale of an Electronic Community, in Connected. Engagements with Media, G. Marcus (ed.). Late Editions Vol. 3. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Ludlow, Peter (ed.). 1996. High Noon on the Electronic Frontier. Conceptual Issues in Cyberspace. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Lyon, David. 1988. The Information Society: Issues and Illusions. Oxford: Polity Press.

_________ 1994. The Electronic Eye. The Rise of Surveillance Society. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Lyotard, Jean-François. 1979. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

MacKenzie, Donald and Judy Wajcman (eds.). 1985. The Social Shaping of Technology. Milton Keynes, Bucks: Open University Press.

Marcus George and Michael Fischer. 1986. Anthropology as Cultural Critique. An Experimental Moment in the Human Sciences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Marcus, George. 1995. Ethnography in/of the World System: The Emergence of Multi-Sited Ethnography. Annual Reviews of Anthropology, 24: 95-117.

_______ (ed.). 1996. Connected. Engagements With Media. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, Late Editions: Cultural Studies for the End of the Century, Vol. 3.

_______ 1997. Critical Cultural Studies as One Power/Knowledge Like, Among, and In Engagement With Others. In From Sociology to Cultural Studies. New Perspectives, E. Long (ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Marvin, Carolyn. 1988. When Old Technologies Were New. Thinking About Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century. Oxford: oxford University Press.

Miller, Daniel and Don Slater. 2000. The Internet: An Ethnographic Approach. Oxford: Berg.

Miller, Laura. 1995. Women and Children First: Gender and the Settling of the Electronic Frontier. In Resisting the Virtual Life. The Culture and Politics of Information, J. Brook and I. Boal (eds.). San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1995, pp. 49-58.

Narveson, Jan. 1988. The Libertarian Idea. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Naughton, John. 2000. A Brief History of the Future. The Origins of the Internet. London: Orion Books.

Negroponte, Nicholas. 1995. Being Digital. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Nozick, Robert. 1974. Anarchy, State and Utopia. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Panos. 1995. The Internet and the South: Superhighway or Dirt-track? London: Panos.

Pfaffenberger, Bryan. 1992. Social anthropology of technology, Annual Review of Anthropology, 21: 491-516.

Rheingold, Howard. 1994. The Virtual Community. Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier. New York: HarperPerennial.

Rinaldi, Arlene. 1998. The Net: User Guidelines and Netiquette. http://www.fau.edu/netiquette/net/index.html

Robbins, Bruce. 1998. Introduction Part I: Actually Existing Cosmopolitanism. In Cosmopolitics: Thinking and Feeling beyond the Nation, P. Cheah and B. Robbins (eds.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota press.

Robertson, Roland. 1990. Mapping the Global Condition: Globalization as the Central Concept. In Global Culture. Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity, M. Featherstone (ed.). London: SAGE Publications.

_______ 1992. Globalization. Social Theory and Global Culture. London: SAGE.

_______ 1995. Time-Space and Homogeneity-Heterogeneity. In M. Featherstone, S. Lash and R. Robertson (eds). Global Modernities. London: SAGE.

Robins, Kevin. 1995. Cyberspace and the World We Live In, in Cyberspace, Cyberbodies, Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment, M. Featherstone and R. Burrows (eds.). London: SAGE.

Roszak, Theodore. 1995. The Making of a Counter Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Sale, K. 1995. Rebels against the Future: The Luddites and their War on the Industrial Revolution. New York: Addison-Wesley.

Sardar, Ziauddin and Jerome R. Ravetz (eds.). 1996. Cyberfutures. Culture and Politics on the Information Superhighway. New York: New York University Press.

Sassen, Saskia. 1999. Digital Networks and Power. In Spaces of Culture. City, Nation, World, M. Featherstone and S. Lash (eds.). London: SAGE Publications.

Shapiro, Andrew. 1999. The Control Revolution. How the Internet is Putting Individuals in Charge and Changing the World We Know. New York: Century Foundation.

Schroeder, Ralph. 1996. Possible Worlds. The Social Dynamic of Virtual Reality Technology. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Schiller, Herbert. 1995. The Global Information Highway: Project for an Ungovernable World. In Resisting the Virtual Life. The Culture and Politics of Information, J. Brook and I. Boal (eds.). San Francisco: City Lights Books.

Shields, Rob (ed.). 1996. Cultures of Internet. Virtual Spaces, Real Histories, Living Bodies. London: SAGE Publications.

Shotton, Margaret A. 1989. Computer Addiction? A Study of Computer Dependency. London: Taylor & Francis.

Smith, Anthony. 1986. The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Stefik, Mark (ed.). 1996. Internet Dreams. Archetypes, Myths, and Metaphors. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Stoll, Clifford.1995. Silicon Snake Oil. Second Thoughts on the Information Highway. London: Pan Books.

Stone, Allucquère Roseanne. 1992. Virtual Systems. In Incorporations, J. Crary and S. Kwinter (eds.). New York: Zone.

Ståhle, Esbjörn and Terho Uimonen. 1989. Electronic Mail on China. Stockholm: Föreningen för Orientaliska Studier, No. 22, (2 Vols.).

Toffler, Alvin. 1980. The Third Wave. New York: Bantam Books.

Turkle, Sherry. 1984. The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit. London: Granada.

_______ 1996. Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.

United Nations. Report of the Working Group on Information and Communication Technologies for Development. E/CN.16/1997/4, March 1997.

Webster, Frank. 1995. Theories of the Information Society. London: Routledge.

Winner, Langdon. 1985. Do artifacts have politics?. In The Social Shaping of Technology, D. MacKenzie and J. Wajcman, (eds.). Milton Keynes, Bucks: Open University Press.

Wood, Allen. 1998. Kant’s Project for Perpetual Peace. In Cosmopolitics: Thinking and Feeling beyond the Nation, P. Cheah and B. Robbins (eds.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota press.